National Climate Change Policy

National Climate Change Policy


Milestones in Israel’s Climate Policy


Ratification of the Framework Convention on Climate Change

02 September 1996

Submission of the initial National Communication

November 2000

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol

15 March 2004

Submission of the Second National Communication

November 2010

Submission of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)

22 November 2016

Paris Agreement (Entry into force)

22 December 2016


The Low Carbon Development context

The largest anthopogenic source of CO2 emissions is the oxydation of carbon when fossil fuels are burned to produce energy. In 2011, about 67 million tons of CO2 were emitted by this process compared to 50 million tons in 1996. The energy industries (power plants and oil refineries) are the largest source of CO2 emissions (65%), followed by transport (23%). Cement production is the most important non-energy industrial process emitting CO2.

Israel prepared a National Plan for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (2010) withthe following main priorities:

  • scrapping of inefficient refrigerators and air conditioners in the household sector,
  • investments targeted at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial, commercial and public sectors,
  • the promotion of green building pilot projects for new and existing,
  • education and information targeting the general public to promote electricity savings and energy efficiency,
  • commercial integration of Israeli technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Key data

  • Total GHG emissions: 78 CO2 equivalent">MtCO2eq (IEA 2011)
  • Per capita GHG emissions: 10 t CO2eq/capita
  • Carbon intensity of the economy: 67,061
  • Carbon intensity of the energy sector: 2.89 CO2/toe
  • Share of renewable energy: about 1.5% by the end of 2014.

National climate change policy has been mainstreamed into sectorial policies and action plans which is in line with many measures contributing directly toward the mitigation of GHG emissions or towards adaptation to climate change.

Action plan on the reduction of air pollution from transportation sources

September 2007

Promotion of clean energy use by means of green taxes;

January 2008

Five year (2008-2012) investment program for renewable energy, including establishing an R&D centre for renewable energy technologies in the Negev;

August 2008

Energy efficiency as a means of tackling climate change, with the aim of bringing about 20% savings in anticipated electricity consumption by 2020

September 2008

Clean Air Act – Enacted

Entry into force[1]



Establishment of targets and tools for the promotion of renewable energy including generation of 10% of Israel's electricity from renewable sources by 2020

January 2009

Establishment of a directors-general committee to prepare a climate change policy and to formulate mitigation and adaptation action plans

June 2009

Greening Government Initiative with quantitative, measurable targets for energy conservation, water savings and waste reduction and recycling;

December 2009

Establishment of an inter-ministerial committee on formulating a national plan for the reduction of GHG emissions.

March 2010

Government resolution n°2508, formulation of a National Plan for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Israel.

28 October 2010

[1] The aim of the law is “to improve air quality and prevent and reduce air pollution, inter alia, by establishing prohibitions and obligations according to the precautionary principle, in order to protect human life, health and quality of life and to protect the environment including natural resources,ecosystems and biodiversity, for the public and for future generations, while considering their needs”



In accordance with a June 2009 Government decision, the Ministry of Environmental Protection is preparing a national climate change adaptation program. The Israeli Climate Change Information Center (ICCIC) was set up by the Ministry in Haifa University in 2011, to compile a national scientific base and to prepare policy recommendations to be integrated into national and local adaptation plans.

The findings of ICCIC have been presented in three reports:

  • A survey of existing knowledge on the implications of climate change for Israel and recommendations on prioritized research needs to fill the existing gaps in knowledge - published May 2012;
  • Policy recommendations and preparation of a plan for international marketing of the products of the ICCIC - published in September 2012;
  • A guide on climate change adaptation by local authorities - published August 2013.
  • Vulnerability assessments to climate change in Israel have highlighted the following main findings:
  • Increase in average annual temperatures between 0.3-.0.5°C, depending on IPCC scenarios.
  • Reduction in the average quantity of rain.
  • Increased desertification in the southern part of the country.
  • Increase in the duration and intensity of heat waves and related risks for vulnerable populations.
  • Increase in extreme events such as floods, potentially resulting in damage to property and ecosystems.
  • Increased probability of forest fires.
  • Uncertainty with regard to the impacts on biodiversity, with a risk of increased numbers of invasive species and earlier migration periods of migrating birds.
  • Necessity to adapt buildings and urban planning to conditions of increased temperature and flood risks and to develop the field of green building.
  • Growth in migration waves to Israel, increased struggles over water sources, changes in sea level and impacts on civil and military facilities on the coast.
  • Necessity for nature damage insurance.

A wide range of strategic responses have been identified for the water, health, land use and coastal management sectors.


Key links

Israeli Ministry for Environmental Protection

Israeli Climate Change Information Center

Assessment of GHG emission reduction potential and national target for Israel