National Climate Change Policy

National Climate Change Policy


Milestones in Lebanon’s Climate Policy


Ratification of the Framework Convention on Climate Change

15 December 1994

Submission of the initial National Communication

02 November 1999

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol

13 November 2006

Establishment of the CDM –DNA

May 2007

Submission of the Second National Communication

16 March 2011

Submission of Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)  

20 September 2015

Paris Agreement (Signature)   22 April 2016 


The Low Carbon Development context

Key data

  • Total GHG emissions: 18.5 Million tons CO2 eq. (Lebanon National GHG Inventory, 2000)
  • Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.7 metric tons per capita in 2010 (IEA, 2011)
  • Carbon intensity of the economy: 0.4 kg of CO2 per PPP $ of 2005 GDP (IEA, 2011)
  • Carbon intensity of the energy sector: 2.91 t CO2/toe (IEA, 2011)
  • Share of renewable energy: 0.05% (elaboration from IEA, 2011 data)

The main strategic axes of sectoral mitigation strategies have been outlined as part of the Second National Communication but have so far not been elaborated in the form of a cohesive national Climate Change policy. An Action Plan, first established as part of the implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy (12 May 2010), identified priority actions aimed at strengthening the environmental dimension of public policy and EU-Lebanon co-operation as well as developing the transport, energy, water and information society sectors and networks through sector liberalisation, investment in infrastructures and interconnection with EU networks.

An action plan for the diffusion and deployment of clean mitigation technologies was proposed as part of the UNDP/Risoe Technology Needs Assessment project where the energy and transport sectors were identified as priority sectors.

A low emission strategy for Lebanon is currently under preparation within the framework of the UNDP Global Low Emission Capacity Building Programme, currently being implemented in 25 countries.



There is no national strategy or plan regarding adaptation to climate change in Lebanon. As part of the Second National Communication, based on a brief assessment of the country’s vulnerability, a set of proposals were put forward for adaptation measures to address climate change in each sector: agriculture, electricity, water, coastal areas, forests, public health, tourism and settlement and infrastructure.